These are the products obtained from ecosystems, including:
Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) pp 56-57
- Food and fiber. This
includes the vast range of food products derived from plants, animals,
and microbes, as well as materials such as wood, jute, hemp, silk, and
many other products derived from ecosystems.
- Fuel. Wood, dung, and other biological materials serve as sources of energy.
- Genetic resources. This includes the genes and genetic information used for animal and plant breeding and biotechnology.
- Biochemicals, natural medicines, and pharmaceuticals. Many medicines, biocides, food additives such as alginates, and biological materials are derived from ecosystems.
- Ornamental resources.
Animal products, such as skins and shells, and flowers are used as
ornaments, although the value of these resources is often culturally
determined. This is an example of linkages between the categories of
- Fresh water. Fresh water is another example of linkages between categories—in this case, between provisioning and regulating services.